world trade is a powerful squeeze in global relations by unifiying
regions and generating hierarchies.
theories of trade, through agent-based simulations and the recognition
of the institutional variety of business and non-business units,
shed new light on the reasons of poverty, development, competition,
co-operation, industrial integration.
structures in world trade
A new technique of analysis of trade values reveals the asymmetric
structure of relationships among countries. The structure of world
trade is characterised by bilateral absence of relations
(82%) and dominance (40% in non-absent relationships), weak
dominance (of two types: 24% and 22% respectively), whereas
symmetric integration is just the 6% of non-absent relationships.
the position of your country in the world system!
dynamics of hierarchy structures in world trade
Paper presented by EWI
director at Princeton University.
Bilateral and total trade of all countries
in the world: a long time series
An amazing huge dataset with the bilateral trade
balance, imports, and export of 186 countries with each other (square
matrices of 186 x 186), with yearly data from 1948 to 2000 (52 matrices).
Standardized consistent values.
MS Excel [2.5 MB]
Download the full Text of the Trans-Pacific
Partnership (TPP) in one file (all chapters, all annexes, all side
letters and all fact-sheets)
ZIP-ped PDF [53Mb]
Bilateral import promotion as a key to integration
in a hierarchical world
Changing the world order from below: a challenge
for rich and poor countries. This is a first policy to raise integration
relations instead of dependence and isolation.
International Trade: Global Value Chains.
An Approximation from Network Theory (2013)
analysis is included in a much broader discussion on the hierarchies
and relative positions attained by countries in the global value
chains formed by bilateral
The competitiveness of Macedonian economy:
a qualitative assessment with product differentiation
International trade is key for land-locked countries
to express their role in the world. In this paper, the specific
condition of Macedonian economy is analysed, in a new framework
that recognizes the importance of non-price competitiveness (since
products relying on price as major driver have recorded a decreasing
market share) and outlines the necessity of targeting sectors and
supporting infrastructure (scientific and educational institutions
and policies) in order to capture the benefits of quality-, knowledge-
and innovation-driven global economy.
The competitivity discourse and exchange rates policies
The objective of this study is to empirically
analyze the discourse on correlation between exchange rate and countrys
export competitiveness, which turns out to be an example of the
dominance of oriented discourses, which give way for the elite to
take advantage as a camouflage in the form of knowledge and truth,
while others in the society never suspect nor argue about it.
in product space and diversification strategies
An empirical measurement of how difficult is to produce a new good
when your country or your firm already produces another one. Based
on a methodology proposed in a
paper by Hidalgo, Klinger, Barabasi, and Haussman, several key
datasets are freely distributed and ten steps of intentional diversification
of national economies are outlined.
Bilateral trade by product
A huge cubic matrix of international trade by
exporter, importer, and product. About 1 million records indicating
trade among any two countries in the world (total and by product).
From this dataset you can extract the world market for more than
1000 product categories (standard SITC codes at 4-digits of aggregation),
exhaustive of merchandise trade. Cumulative values for 1998, 1999
and 2000. Data in DBF format, easily readably by free viewers and
Export competitiveness of 182 countries
Export composition and Balassa index.
merchandise balance among 99 countries
remittances flows among 212 countries
data: Exports, imports, trade balances for 181 countries - a
Absolute figures, shares in world trade, rankings.
and destinations in world trade - Trade flows over time
Inflows, outflows, inward stock and outward stock in 200 countries
- a long time-series (1970-2003)
remittances (205 countries): a long time series
trade in 2004, prospects for 2005
In 2004, China has become the third largest exporter
and importer in the world.
trade in 2003 by product
Summary statistics about trade values and flows
in agriculture, the mining sector, manufacture, commercial services.
rates for 200 currencies, spanning across more than 20 years
one sheet you can track and compare the yearly dynamics of 200 world
currencies on the long term. Currency crises, fixed exchange rates
and wide fluctuations in a fully international perspective.
Trade and Development Reports 1996-2007
Web page 2007
world elasticities (144 countries) - Price elasticities and income
elasticities of consumption classes (food and non-food) - Food share
on household budget
exports for 136 countries and 42 years
most user-friendly distribution of the main international database
on GDP components (consumption,
expenditure and net exports)
for 136 countries and 42 years. Excellent for international comparisons,
long-term growth enquiries and business cycle analysis, since it
provides real values at constant prices comparable over time and
rates for 170 countries (1970-1996)
dynamics of inflation is presented in one sheet. Is price stability
a common feature of the world economies? Is hyperinflation a disease
that hurts some groups of countries more than others? Discover the
answers to these and many other questions just analysing the real
Oil Market and Oil Price Chronologies: 1970 - 2004
expectancy and healthy life expectancy (HALE) (55 countries)
Power Parities (30 countries) 1980-2003
Data and use.
Trade with thy neighbour
Proximity international trade creates the kind
of relative bilateral monopoly that might bring to economic integration
on equal foot, with deep reciprocation and internalization of bilateral
Marginalized sub-national regions and communities
might thrive because of the activation of legal trade across the
This paper assesses the importance of trade
between neighbours for the involved regions and for the overall
structure of the world relationships.
India Sri Lanka: Comprehensive Economic
An evaluation of the opportunities and challenges
opened by the intensive negotiation work between these two neighbours.
Beyond comparative advantages: the role of innovation, income
distribution and learning in building absolute advantage in international
The composition of international trade, and thus
the international division of labour, is determined by national
differences in technological, organisational and financial capabilities
rather than relative factor endowments.
The existence of technology and income gaps across
countries provides an important explanation of the difference between
nations regarding the specialisation of international trade patterns.
Exports and their linkages to literacy
An exploration of the manyfolds relations of
exports and the growth of the number of people capable to write.
export promotion plan (September 2010)
Trade at risk - a strategy for South Africa
Precautionary, mitigation and adaptation measures
for South Africa to trade collapse risk.
Commodity-Dependent Developing Countries:
problems and perspectives
43 developing countries depends on just one agriculture
commodity for more than 20% of their exports. Other countries are
similarly dependent on just a handful of primary commodities. Long-term
decline in prices, short term fluctuations, poverty:
these issues should be taken in a stronger account by the entire
and policy challenges
by Luisa Rodriguez (South Centre)
commodity issues and some implications for the WTO negotiations
on agriculture by Panos Konandreas (FAO)
papers and presentations
Interpersonal Networks in International Trade:
Evidence on the Role of Immigrants in Promoting Exports from the
small worlds / social network theory - and the importance of Granovetters
weak ties - are intriguingly connected to an important empirical
problem: the relationship between emigrants and patterns in international
Assessing the employment effect of FDI
inflows to Egypt: Does the mode of entry matter? (2008)
Egypt has attempted to attract Foreign
Direct Investments since 1974 and has offered generous incentives
to achieve this target, motivated by low domestic savings
rates accompanied by inefficient financial intermediation and
the opportunity to benefit from the direct and indirect effects
of FDI on increasing demand for labour.
This is especially important given a chronic unemployment
problem that the Egyptian economy suffers from. This paper extensively
assess empirically the effect of FDI and argue about the importance
of studying FDI at the most disaggregated possible level, since
they are not homogeneous in their effects.
published at the Arab
Planning Institute as proceedings to the conference "“The
Unemployment Crisis in the Arab Countries”
speeches at the Hong Kong WTO Ministerial Conference
The draft text of the main document of
the WTO ministerial conference (17 Dec. 2005)
gains from trade: A critical assessment of Doha round projections
This overview of estimates of gains from trade
liberalization is quite interesting on the state of the debate and
the crisis of standard Walrasian models, although, in the background,
there is some simplistic reasoning that seems to sound: Walrasian
models do not demonstrate enough gain from liberalization, so let's
change the models.
the benefits from liberalization in agriculture: are standard Walrasian
Jean-Marc Boussard, Françoise Gérard,
Marie Gabrielle Piketty from
INRA - CIRAD
shows that if (contrary to the strong versions of the "rational
expectation hypothesis"), agriculture producers do not take their
decisions on the basis of equilibrium prices only but take also
risk into account, then the market can generate very harmful seemingly
preventing price stabilisation policies, results in more instability,
and a decrease in welfare, as it is numerically demonstrated in
both a partial equilibrium model of the world sugar industry and
a GTAP-style general equilibrium model of the world economy.
more information about agriculture research and the authors' activities
for Africa and other development areas,
see the pages from CIRAD
Agriculture: for a regulation of world
trade placing development at the centre of WTO negotiations
In many southern countries, the liberalization
of agricultural trade has contributed to an increase in the proportion
of imported food in comparison with local products.
Food supplies, in particular for urban populations,
is not longer provided by local producers but through import channels.
Rural producers, deprived of these outlets, either migrate to the
towns or are increasingly encouraged to specialize in export crops,
thereby increasing small scale farmers’ dependence on the
state of the world market.
[...] many countries, not only in the North but
also in the South, have been able to export products sold at very
low price, taking advantage of productivity gains brought by intensive
production methods and encouraged by production incentives, including
subsidies under European and American agricultural policies, rice
stabilization policies introduced in Thailand, and massive government
spending on sugar and soya beans in Brazil.
Not all countries have achieved such results
though. Over half of the South’s family farming communities still
use manual tools and animal draught power, and many developing countries
generally cannot afford to apply incentive measures for their producers.
The result is that work productivity varies from one group to the
other, on average, in a ratio of 1 to 500.
Out of an critical analysis of the impact of
WTO regualations, a series of recommendations on the occasion of
WTO Ministerial Conference, Hong Kong, 13-18 December 2005 has
been issued by Coordination SUD (Solidarité - Urgence - Développement).
You are an exporter
This business game will improve your skills in exporting, choosing
target countries, fixing prices and quantities, while surfing between
business cycles and changes in the cost structure. You'll better
understand how the exchange rate impacts on exports and imports.
Suitable for beginners and researchers.
Download it now: essay and software
EU productivity and competitiveness: can Europe
resume the catching-up process with US?
industry-level and firm-level productivity in EU are compared with
US and a policy for productivity catching-up is proposed.
Technological developments and their effects
on world trade: any implications for governments?
summarizes several links between technological innovation
(and imitation) and world trade,
with a large spectrum of data matrices.
An example of information set for the export
often approach new markets just by participating to trade fairs,
meeting there potential importers and building business relationships
with them by trial and error. But a systematic overview of
foreing markets can offer a more structured approach. In this report
by U.N. Bhati,
you'll find a good instance of what an export manager can find in
such documents to orient its actions and business plans.
A Statistical Profile
of Forest Product Market in South Korea [362 KB]
Japanese Foreign Aid, Development Expenditures
and Taxation: econometric results from a bounded rationality model
of fiscal behaviour
path-breaking methodology for assessing the behaviour of
foreign aid receivers. Investment
in human and physical capital has been a significant factor in Malaysian
GDP growth. Both internal and external
sources of finance have been used in promoting investments
as well as development expenditures.
foreign aid could have been used, by a bounded rational bureaucratic
policymaker, in many different ways, not all conducive to development.
Country concentration of Turkish exports and
imports over time
Through international trade, countries develop
their own net of privileged partners. Turkey is an extremely interesting
example of a fast changing developing country. In this paper, Prof.
Erlat shows not only data analysis but also a methodology
to address the issue of concentration and diversification of exports.
The Product Cycle Theory of international trade is given further
Intra-regional trade in South Africa Development
A gravity model is used to assess trade potential
around South Africa and contrasted with
the author's own estimates
of intra-regional trade. The model examines how the reduction of
trade transaction costs, the level of development and the size of
an economy influences trade potential amongst countries.
A major finding is that fundamental structural and economic factors
such as the transaction costs of trading, the growth paths of economies
and changes in per capita income should be the focus of regional
integration rather than trade policy in its own right.
unofficial history of UNCTAD
the dialectics among international organization as WTO, World Bank,
ILO, etc. UNCTAD could find a new role.
from the South Centre
Innovation and competitiveness: trends in
unit prices in global trade
evolutionary economics approach to an important issue of world trade.
Evolution in the "terms of trade"
and its impact on developing countries (2005)
of Exports and Investment of Manufacturing Firms in Tanzania
Findings from a survey of 83 firms.
Exports, FDI, and Productivity: Dynamic Evidence
from Japanese Firms (2006)
Using an extraordinarily rich longitudinal panel
data on Japanese firms, it is found that the most productive
firms engage in exports and foreign
direct investment, medium productive firms engage in
either exports or foreign direct investment, and
the least productive firms focus only on
the domestic market. Moreover, exports and foreign direct
investment appear to improve firm productivity
once the productivity convergence effect is controlled for.
Trade and labour mobility: an empirical enquiry
Rising out of a number of empirical studies linking
measures of labour-market adjustment to trade patterns, this research
has focused on industry-level measures and determinants of adjustment
and employed individual-level data on manufacturing employees in
the United Kingdom to construct “distance” measures
of worker moves across industries and occupations.
Changing Structure of Global Food Consumption
Shifts in food consumption have led to increased
trade and changes in the composition of world agricultural trade.
Given different diets, food expenditure and food budget responses
to income and price changes vary between developing and developed
countries. In developing countries, higher income results in increased
demand for meat products, often leading to increased import of live-stock
economic data: UN
Query-based huge database. It's free up to 1000