Magnetized by European Union policies and structures,
the European model of development, based on quality of life, welfare
state, democracy, tolerance, historical heritage, industrial and
post-industrial development is reforming itself to gain a new leadership
in a more just world.
Essay: 2015 Review of Employment and Social
Developments in Europe (ESDE) by the European Commission - and
(2015 - presented in January 2016)
A Review of the UK Economy in 2015
An analysis by Economists
for Rational Economic Policies
Data: How EU is progressing in sustainable
2015 data for all members and in aggregate.
Data: Long-term interest rates in the EU countries
Interest spread across Europe.
The 2020 European Union strategy (March 2010)
Policies for a sustainable job-rich recovery - by ILO
proposal for green growth, innovation and other policies opening
the way out for EU crisis
The EU 2050 de-carbonization road map
crisis without end: The consequences of
neoliberalism run amok (March 2013)
Instead of fostering innovation,
productivity and raising wages
to sustain consumption, Europe undermined
the income and demand generation process via wage stagnation and
widened income inequality. The stimulus from German re-unification
and the low interest rate convergence
produced by creation of the euro prompted a ten year credit
and asset price bubble that created fictitious prosperity. Postponing
stagnation in this fashion has had costs because it worsened the
ultimate stagnation by creating large build-ups of debt, which frame
austerity as never ending self-propelling dynamics.
100% Renewable Electricity Supply by 2050: Climate-friendly, Reliable,
and Affordable: the German example
Addressing a missing element in the Toledo Declaration with industrial
ecology (May 2011)
landmark of urban regeneration policy for EU, the Toledo Declaration,
amidst the call for an integrated approach to address sustainability
challenges by the declaration, exhibits a predominant focus on using
local actions to solve local problems.
This lope-sided scope may give rise to policies that end up shifting
problems beyond the local jurisdiction. Some of these problems can
be deduced using key industrial ecology concepts, such as material
flow analysis and life cycle assessment.
The author, a Singaporean scholar, provides a few possible strategies
to cope with the issue, after a longitudinal study showing a specific
simple software where you can verify the economic sustainability
of pension scheme reforms in a population, depending on retirement
age, wages, payroll taxes, age of labour market entry, births and
deaths. Useful to elaborate on the reforms carried out in
EU Member states, also in relationship to the EU
Commission White paper on pensions.
The financial crisis, austerity and the perspective of failure
The turmoil in the Eurozone is due to the global
crisis of financialisation that broke out in 2007. But it is also
due to the biased nature of the European Monetary Union (EMU). Systematic
pressure on labour has intensified the disparities of competitiveness
among Eurozone members, splitting the Eurozone into core
and periphery. The competitiveness of the core has benefited
from extraordinary pressure on workers' wages
which, in Germany, has meant practically stagnant real wages for
well over a decade. Loss of competitiveness has entailed systematic
current account deficits
for the periphery, mirrored by equally systematic surpluses for
Germany. The eruption of generalised instability in late 2009 reflects
these profound imbalances within the Eurozone.
Rescuing the banks has come at the cost of austerity,
with negative implications for European economies and societies.
Austerity will compress public expenditure
and weaken private consumption, i.e.
the elements of aggregate demand that have shown some vitality during
the recession of 2008-9. Given the collapse of investment and the
retreat of credit, austerity has increased the risk of recession.
data: CO2 and other GHG emissions in Europe (May 2009)
Russian State Policies in Current Foreign Trade
This recent book explores and describes the main
implications and possible perspectives of Russian state policies
in the foreign trade, not only against the background of the current
economic situation in the country but also including political processes
in the world to the extent that is necessary to understand their
time spent on different activities by employment status, sex, and
Energy for the future: Renewable
sources of energy
White Paper for a EU strategy and action plan.
a European strategy for the security of energy supply
Eliminating World Poverty: Making Globalisation Work for
paper from the UK Department for International Development (DFID),
responsible for promoting sustainable development and reducing poverty.
policy for 2010
It was the 2001 when these policies were proposed:
improving quality in the road sector, revitalising the railways,
controlling the growth in air transport, linking up the modes of
transports, rationalising urban transport, halving the number of
accidents deaths, going towards gradual charging for the use of
Growth, Competitiveness, Employment:
The Challenges and Ways Forward into the 21st Century
EU white paper ("Delors' plan")
data: Consumption expenditure by income classes in Italy
typical monthly expenditure structure for different consumption
needs, differentiated by income classes of the households. The confirmation
of Engel's law of decreasing importance of food (the higher the
income) is accompanied by a host of other interesting features.
data: EU data for all the variables in IS-LM
model (Germany, France, Italy, Spain, UK, Switzerland and other
13 European countries)
data: European Economy Yearbook
data: Forecasts about the European economy
Essay: The pricing
behaviour of firms in the Euro area
This study investigates the pricing behaviour
of firms in the euro area on the basis of surveys conducted by nine
Eurosystem national central banks, covering more than 11,000 firms.
The results, robust across countries, show that firms operate in
monopolistically competitive markets, where prices are mostly set
following markup rules and where price discrimination is common.
Around one-third of firms follow mainly time-dependent pricing rules
while twothirds allow for elements of state-dependence.
The majority of firms take into account past
and expected economic developments in their pricing decisions. Price
stickiness is mainly driven by customer relationships – explicit
and implicit contracts – and coordination failure.
Firms adjust prices asymmetrically in response to shocks: while
cost shocks have a greater impact when prices have to be raised
than when they have to be reduced, reductions in demand are more
likely to induce a price change than increases in demand.
Essay: Does innovation
policy matter in a transition country?
Havas demonstrates in this paper the simultaneous
need for systemic institutional changes and macroeconomic
stabilisation in order to improve microeconomic performance.
Whithin an evolutionary economics framework,
innovation policy is examined
both theoretically and empirically in the case of an European country
currently undergoing deep structural changes: Hungary.
Regimes and Innovation: Looking for Regularities in Dutch Manufacturing
The Pavitt taxonomy tested and refined.
in 99 countries (1950-2000)
An international comparison of productivity
levels over time.
data: Readership of daily newspaper by occupation (Italy)
data: An international comparison of 13 key indicators of innovation:
the European Innovation Scoreboard (2002)
data: Lending and deposit interest rates in 13 EU countries (1980-2001)
national interest rates have
been identified and allocated to ten broad categories - six for
lending rates and four for deposit rates.
data: Gross domestic expenditure on R&D by source of funds
in 71 countries in Europe and beyond
data: 2005 R&D spending in Europe, China, Japan and US
investment in Spain firms
of Spanish manufacturing firms provides an important empirical evidence
that business investment - at
micro level - is infrequent and lumpy.There are periods in which
firms decide not to invest and periods of large investment episodes.
Rocío Sánchez-Mangas develops and tests consider
a dynamic discrete choice model of irreversible investment with
a general specification of adjustment costs including convex and
concentration of Turkish exports and imports over time
Through international trade, countries develop
their own net of privileged partners. Turkey is an extremely interesting
example of a fast changing developing country. In this paper, Prof.
Erlat shows not only data analysis but also a methodology
to address the issue of concentration and diversification of exports.
The Product Cycle Theory of international trade is given further
To generalise this findings, you can look at the data
of export composition for 182 countries or explore the huge
dataset that tracks importers, exporters, and products.
and government savings in Germany, USA, Japan: a short-run comparison
data: Savings behaviors in the UK population (2000 and 2001)
overview of the micro-data results of a survey on savings
rules. The survey has identified four savers profiles: Saving
Shortfallers - those who struggle simply to make ends meet and who
say they cannot afford to put anything by for the future (18% of
the population); Saving Shirkers - those who believe that life is
for living, who live for the day, and, as a result, save very little
(13%); Sometimes Savers - those who realise that they need to save
more but make inadequate and haphazard attempts to save on an occasional
basis (29%); Savvy Savers - those who believe in the importance
of saving and save as much as they can. They tend to have a long-term
savings strategy (38% of the population).
Over half of
the respondents wish they had started saving earlier.
thanks to a second survey in 2001.
data: Comparable wages for 162 jobs in 132 countries
MS Excel file with a user-friendly interface of the excellent dataset
by Freeman - Oostendorp. Long-term
time-series from 1983 to 1999. This data set allows for comparison
of wages across countries for the
same job, over time, underlining the differences between skilled
and unskilled works.
Housing Market and Europe's Unemployment: A Non-Technical Paper
Well-Being and Wage Curves in Eastern Europe
data: Health and
disease statistics worldwide
Compare European results with those attained in other areas.
expenditure on health in OECD countries (1960-2000)
differences in public health quality management systems
The reform of health system aimed at higher quality
and lower costs is a challenge
with different possible answers. A comparative analysis of development
path within a regionalized Italy.
data: Life expectancy and healthy
life expectancy (HALE) (55 countries)
data: Human development index (162 countries)
rich report for reflections and data.
data - a long-term money time-series
for 19 countries (France, Germany, Greece,...)
data: Quality of education: 16
Academic attainments in math, literacy, ICT,...;
participation, completion and drop out rates; resources...
Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy,Luxembourg,
the Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, Finland, Sweden, the United
Kingdom,Cyprus, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Latvia, Estonia,
Lithuania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slovenia
data: Education attainments in reading: a comparison of 35 countries
exceptional survey by IEAís
Study of Reading Literacy
(PIRL), with microdata
data: Composition of public expenditure
(education, health, defence...) - 69 countries in Europe, Asia,
Africa, America (1975-1985)
revenue in OECD countries (1966-2000) plus a comparison in tax systems
data: Environmental taxes in 15 European countries (1980-1999)
competition in EU15: what is the reality?
and reflections (June 2004)
data: Income, consumer expenditure, and price
level in a UK regional comparison
data: Simplified aggregate balance sheets: a time series
Turn-over, value added, profits,
employment and other firm data
during the business cycles: the Italian case.
Schumpeterian Creative Destruction Lead to Higher Productivity?
Evidence on Entry and Exit in Portuguese Manufacturing
growth patterns have been widely discussed in the literature at
both macroeconomic- and industry-level. But growth takes place in
individual firms. Understanding resource reallocation at the micro
level, and its relationship with industry productivity growth, are
thus crucial in designing new industrial policies.
The neo-Schumpeterian models of Nelson and Winter
are tested with an original and statistically representative panel
of manufacturing firms covering the period 1991-2000 (annual observations).
the pre-exit performance of French manufacturing firms
From Economic Convergence to Convergence
in Affluence? Income Growth, Household Expenditure and the Rise
of Mass Consumption in Britain and West Germany, 1950-1974
Essay: EU productivity
and competitiveness: can Europe resume the catching-up process with
industry-level and firm-level productivity in EU are compared with
US and a policy for productivity catching-up is proposed.
Foreign Policy Center
A leading European think tank, the Foreign Policy
Centre has been launched under the patronage of the British Prime
Minister Tony Blair to develop a vision of a fair and rule-based
Debate site: Database
of best practices in e-government (labour market, social inclusion,
Debate site: Corporate
A European-based research and campaign group
targeting the threats to democracy, equity, social justice and the
environment posed by the economic and political power of corporations
and their lobby groups.